Keyword Search Help
A result of many years of research and development, FoundationSearch is breaking new ground by being the first completely keyword searchable database of IRS Form 990PF information. What sets FoundationSearch apart from any product currently available is that all parts of the document are fully searchable including the preprinted data and the manually entered information.
FoundationSearch supports the boolean keyword search method for exploring the US 990PF returns.
If you use more than one connector, you should use parentheses to indicate precisely what you want to search for. For example, apple and pear or orange juice could mean (apple and pear) or orange, or it could mean apple and (pear or orange).
You can use a phrase anywhere in a search request. To search for a phrase, use quotation marks around it. Example:
If a phrase contains a noise word, FoundationSearch will skip over the noise word when searching for it. For example, a search for statue of liberty would retrieve any document containing the word statue, any intervening word, and the word liberty.
Punctuation inside of a search word is treated as a space. Thus, can't would be treated as a phrase consisting of two words: can and t.
A search word can contain the wildcard characters * and ?. A ? in a word matches any single character, and a * matches any number of characters. The wildcard characters can be in any position in a word. For example:
Use of the * wildcard character near the beginning of a word will slow searches somewhat.
Fuzzy searching will find a word even if it is misspelled. For example, a fuzzy search for apple will find appple. Fuzzy searching can be useful when you are searching text that may contain typographical errors, or for text that has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR). There are two ways to add fuzziness to searches:
Stemming extends a search to cover grammatical variations on a word. For example, a search for child would also find children. A search for applied would also find applying, applies, and apply. There are two ways to add stemming to your searches:
Phonic searching looks for a word that sounds like the word you are searching for and begins with the same letter. For example, a phonic search for Smith will also find Smithe and Smythe.
To ask FoundationSearch.com to search for a word phonically, put a # in front of the word in your search request. Examples:
You can also check the Phonic searching box in the search form to enable phonic searching for all words in your search request. Phonic searching is somewhat slower than other types of searching and tends to make searches over-inclusive, so it is usually better to use the # symbol to do phonic searches selectively.
When FoundationSearch.com sorts search results after a search, by default all words in a request count equally in counting hits. However, you can change this by specifying the relative weights for each term in your search request, like this:
This request would retrieve the same documents as children and education but, FoundationSearch.com would weight children five times as heavily as education when sorting the results.
In a natural language search, FoundationSearch.com automatically weights terms based on an analysis of their distribution in your documents. If you provide specific term weights in a natural language search, these weights will override the weights FoundationSearch.com would otherwise assign.
Use the AND connector in a search request to connect two expressions, both of which must be found in any document retrieved. For example:
(HIV or AIDS) and (diagnosis w/5 treatment) would retrieve any document that (1) contained either HIV OR AIDS, AND (2) contained diagnosis within 5 words of treatment.
Use the OR connector in a search request to connect two expressions, at least one of which must be found in any document retrieved. For example, child development or social services would retrieve any document that contained child development, social services, or both.
Use the W/N connector in a search request to specify that one word or phrase must occur within N words of the other. For example, children w/5 education would retrieve any document that contained children within 5 words of education. The following are examples of search requests using W/N:
Some types of complex expressions using the W/N connector will produce ambiguous results and should not be used. The following are examples of ambiguous search requests:
In general, at least one of the two expressions connected by W/N must be a single word or phrase or a group of words and phrases connected by or. Example:
FoundationSearch uses two built in search words to mark the beginning and end of a file: xfirstword and xlastword. The terms are useful if you want to limit a search to the beginning or end of a file. For example, hospital w/10 xlastword would search for hospital within 10 words of the end of a document.
Use NOT in front of any search expression to reverse its meaning. This allows you to exclude documents from a search. Example:
NOT standing alone can be the start of a search request. For example, not pear would retrieve all documents that did not contain pear.
If NOT is not the first connector in a request, you need to use either AND or OR with NOT:
The NOT W/ ("not within") operator allows you to search for a word or phrase not in association with another word or phrase. Example:
Unlike the W/ operator, NOT W/ is not symmetrical. That is, apple not w/20 pear is not the same as pear not w/20 apple. In the apple not w/20 pear request, FoundationSearch.com searches for apple and excludes cases where apple is too close to pear. In the pear not w/20 apple request, FoundationSearch.com searches for pear and excludes cases where pear is too close to apple.